What is attacking my lace leaf red maple?
This is the time of year that deer rub their antlers on trunks and scrape off bark. Unless your fence is 6-8 feet high, it will not stop them. Fencing the individual tree with wire mesh might help.
However, the second photo looks like the damage is on the top of the branches, not the sides as deer rubbing would usually be. It's possible this is squirrel feeding or gnawing. Squirrels are somewhat unpredicatable and we would not be surprised if it were squirrels. There is no action you can take.
Keep the tree watered well through fall and it may recover fairly well next spring. You'll be able to assess the result of the damage better then.