Thank you for your question.
Bamboo is a foreign invasive plant--invasive meaning that it basically will not stop unless you stop it. Since it is not native, it is very destructive to our natural environment.
Dig up and remove the existing bamboo. This will require heavy equipment for the stand of bamboo in your photo. Then use the heavy equipment to dig a deep barrier. But understand that there is no guarantee that roots will not escape!
The spread of bamboo can be accomplished through sturdy barriers and by cutting back new shoots. In Maryland, bamboo has a distinct period of shooting, March through May. If cut back at this time, new shoots will not grow.That will take some time and repeat applications, but can be done with an herbicide timed correctly.
Without using heavy equipment, you can keep bamboo under control by cutting it down and with repeated herbicide treatments. Selective lawn weed killers will not control bamboo since they are designed to kill only broadleaf plants, not grass. Therefore, a non-selective herbicide must be used. To do this, cut all the stalks to the ground and allow the new growth to emerge and develop leaves during the summer. In October spray the mature foliage with a non-selective herbicide containing glyphosate (ie: Round-up or Kleen-up) at the 2% rate. Repeat the application in 14 days. Be careful to protect non-target plants from drifting spray.
Here is a link to our information on bamboo and its control. https://extension.umd.edu/hgic/topics/bamboo
Here is a link to our video on installing a bamboo barrier. https://youtu.be/Qf7S80itdso