What is this
This is one of Ohio's orb weaver spiders. It appears to be a female who is approaching the end of her life cycle. It appears that she has laid her clutch of eggs based on the size of her abdomen. She belongs to the spider family Araneidae and to the genus Araneus. My best guess is that she is a Shamrock Orb weaver spider, Araneus trifolium. You can find her on page 27 of ODNR's Division of Wildlife Common Spiders of Ohio Field Guide that you can access at the following web address: https://wildlife.ohiodnr.gov/portals/wildlife/pdfs/publications/id%20guides/pub5140.pdf.
She is not considered to be medically important and is considered beneficial because she captures and consumes numerous insects during her growth and development.
Thank you very much!