What has infested this vine/shrub?
Your plant is called Winter Creeper (E.fortunei), which is a type of Euonymus, and the dots are a type of sucking insect called scale. This armored scale is actually called Euonymus scale. It is not easy to control.
More about scale insects here, then follow the highlighted link to "Euonymus scale":
It is not easy to control because it's almost impossible to reach all of the scales to treat. Cutting it way back and treating new growth is a possibility, but you might consider replacing it all together.
You should know that Winter Creeper is a highly invasive and problematic plant and an ecological threat as it escapes gardens and shows up in natural areas and crowds out our native species.
Here is our page on it: https://extension.umd.edu/hgic/topics/winter-creeper-euonymus