Pests and unhealthy shrubs
What you are seeing in your ferns is their new growth. They come up as stem with a spiral curve on top and are referred to as 'fiddleheads'. Some types are considered an edible delicacy. (We don't recommend edibility though.)
The brownish papery covering will slough off and you will have new, green growth.
The shrub you have there looks like a type of Osmanthus that is sometimes called a 'false holly'. "Goshiki' is an Osmanthus cultivar with white/green leaves like that and the new flush of growth is reddish like that. It will likely mature to the regular color with time.