I have been trying to grow cucumbers (and summer squash) in containers in my greenhouse. It gets too cold at night for my raised bed garden. The tiny fruit begin to grow till they are about an inch or so in size, then shrivel up, turn yellow and die. Last year I tried a gynoecious type and the same thing occurred. I water heavily every day, use the biggest pots I could find and fertilized weekly. Still, I had 6 edible cucumbers from two large plants last year. Yes, they do, rarely, grow to be nice sized fruit. If the problem is the cool nights, I have a small heater I could use on all but the hottest days.
Douglas County Oregon cucumbers
Thanks for your question. Yes; cucumbers are hot-weather plants, preferring temperatures between 75 and 90 degrees, so unheated greenhouses won't sustain them. The other factor that is undoubtedly a problem is the amount of water you are giving them. Although they do need regular watering, every day is about 3 times too much. You're washing away what nutrients there are in the soil, so they're starving. You don't say what fertilizer you're giving them, but it is leaching out. Here is an Extension article about growing them in the Pacific Northwest; their needs are the same whether they are in a greenhouse or outside, just more so: http://cru.cahe.wsu.edu/CEPublications/FS096E/FS096E.pdf