What kind of plant is this
This is a cyclamen, probably Cyclamen hederifolium, a hardy clump-forming plant which slowly enlarges. People plant them because they thrive in lightly shaded areas where they provide bright colored flowers and attractive leaves in spite of minimum care. This plant appears to be well situated because it looks very healthy.
It is not on an invasive species list but it can spread slowly by seeding. If you don’t like it, or it spreads more rapidly than you want, remove it sooner rather than later. See this: http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/PlantFinder/PlantFinderDetails.aspx?kempercode=s710 and this http://www.finegardening.com/plant/baby-cyclamen-cyclamen-hederifolium